Vol. 1 No. 3; July 2012

International Journal of Applied Research and Technology

         ISSN 2277-0585

Vol. 1, No. 3      |        July 2012

Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Sociology

Title:          Economic Analysis of Palm Wine Marketing in Idemili North Local   Government Area of Anambra     State, Nigeria.

Author(s):    Nwibo, S. U., Odo N. E. and Igberi C. O.

Abstract:   The study analysed the economics of palm wine marketing in Idemili North Local Government Area of Anambra State. A sample size of 128 palm wine marketers were randomly selected using multistage random sampling technique.  Data were collected from primary source using structured questionnaires. Data obtained were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics based on the objectives of the study. The result obtained showed that more males (69.5%) were involved in marketing of palm wine marketing. The study further revealed that majority of the respondents are married (65.5%) with an average household size of 10. The result also shows that the marketers are within the active age of 41 years having stayed in the business for an average of 13 years. Most (48.4%) of the marketers had primary school educational and an average annual income of N200, 000.00.  From the sale of 600 litres of palm wine, the marketers realized a profitable of thirty eight thousand, three hundred naira (N38, 300.00) showing the benefit cost ratio that in every N1 invested in the business, N0.60k was made as profit. The result of multiple regression analysis on the effect of socio-economic characteristics of marketers on their profit showed that the coefficient of multiple determination (R2) was 0.761 with coefficients of age, household size, educational level, annual income and years of experience being positive and statistically influencing the profit level of the marketers.  The study identified; poor patronage, weather variation, and seasonality of supply as the major constraints to palm wine marketing in the area. Based on the findings it is therefore recommended that processing of palm wine should be commercialized to guarantee extension of shelf life, and the development of appropriate packaging technology obtained in carbonated drinks.                      

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 Title:            Adoption of Agricultural Development Programmes Technological Packages on Cassava Processing by Women in Akwa Ibom South-South, Nigeria.

 Author(s):    Nwaiwu, J.C

 Abstract:  This study assessed the farmers’ socio-economic characteristics that influence the adoption of the ADP’s technological packages, assessed the impact of the ADP’s technological packages on cassava processing and also identify the problems encountered in adopting the packages by women in Eket Agricultural Zone of Akwa-ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaires administered to 100 randomly selected women processors from the list of ADP’s contact and non-contact farmers which were collected from ADP’s Extension Agents and community leaders in the zone respectively.  The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools, multiple linear regression technique and T-test statistics.  Results showed that 68 respondents adopted odourless fufu package while 27 and 46 respondents adopted chips and flour packages respectively.  The result of the regression analysis shows significant relationship between age, level of education, social participation and adoption.  The test of difference in the mean level of adoption among the ADP’s contact and non-contact women cassava processors produced T-value of 2.5758 which was significant at both 0.05 and 0.1 levels; implying that there was a difference in the level of adoption among ADP’s contact and non-contact women processors.

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Title:             Determination of Fertilizer Adoption by Sweetpotato Farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Author(s):    Nwaigwe, G. O., Okoye, B. C., Nwanwko, I. M. and Mazza, M.

 Abstract:     Fertilizer is very important because it makes sweetpotato grow well and give good yield. It is known that continuous cropping on a piece of land lowers soil fertility and is being maintained with adequate use of chemical fertilizers or manure application. Due to manpower, some farmers are not applying this input and this has resulted to low crop yield. This study therefore, investigated the use of fertilizer for sweetpotato production in the study area.  The three agro-ecological zones used were Ebonyi North, Ebonyi Central land Ebonyi South. Purposive random sampling technique was used to select six sweetpotato producing local Government Area (LGAs) in Ebonyi State.  Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents form the six LGAs in the state. Information was collected from the respondents with the aid of structured questionnaires and the data generated from the information collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate pobit model. Results showed that 75.8% of the respondents were not using fertilizer for sweetpotato production. Also farmer’s level of education (P<0.01), household size (P<0.01), association membership of farmers (P<0.01), sweetpotato farm size (P<0.01) and sweetpotato output (P<0.01) are significant factors determining the probability of a farmer to use fertilizer for sweetpotato production and it is therefore recommended that farmers should be enlightened on the need to use fertilizer when required to enhance their production.   

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Title:             Productivity of Garden Egg (Solanum Melongena) in Imo State, South East Nigeria.

Author(s):    Nwaiwu, I.U.

Abstract:  The socio-economic, cultural, high price, higher demand and nutritional relevance of garden egg (Solanum melongena) prompted this inquest on its productivity in Imo State, Southeast Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 180 Garden egg producer households whose responses formed the data used in this study. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and total factor productivity index were used as analytical tools. The results showed that the mean age, level of education, household size, farming experience and farm size are 51years, 12years, 6 persons, 23years, and 0.511 hectares respectively. It also showed a high and encouraging total factor productivity of 1.75 which implies a technically efficient production system and a potentially profitable venture. It was therefore concluded that Garden egg (Solanum melongena) has very high productivity and is a profitable business venture and should be encouraged by all stakeholders in agriculture and economic planning in Nigeria.

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Title:           Financial Analysis of Vegetable Enterprises under the National Fadama II Development Project (NFDP II) in Imo State, Nigeria

Author(s):    Ezeh, C. I., Anyiro, C. O., Obioma, N. Q. and Chilaka, A. B.

Abstract: The study determined the financial analysis of vegetable enterprises under the National Fadama II development project in Imo state, Nigeria. All the three zones (Okigwe, Orlu and Owerri) were involved in the study. A multi-state random sampling technique was used to select 120 farmers from which data were collected. Instrument for data collection was a set of structured and pre-tested questionnaires. The result of the multiple regression analysis with linear functional form as the lead equation showed that age of the farmers, sex, educational level, farming experience, farm size and amount of funds invested were critical and significant determinants of the output of Fadama II vegetable enterprise. The combined effects of all the variables explained 51.7% of the variation in output of Fadama II vegetable enterprise. The net return analysis posted a profit of N84, 000.18 per hectare of vegetable enterprise. The value of current ratio (liquidity ratio) was 2.53, the net capital ratio (solvent ratio) was 1.78 and debt/equity ratio (leverage ratio) was 1.28. it was recommended that the scope of Fadama II should be increased to accommodate other farmers.

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Title:           Poverty Status and Food Demand in Rural Africa: Evidence from Yam Farmers in South East, Nigeria

Author(s):   Ogbonna, M. C., Onyenweaku, C. E. and Nwaru, J. C. 

Abstract: This study investigated the poverty status and food demand among yam farm households in Southeastern Nigeria. The poverty line was first established as N678.59 and N339.30 per person per day for the poor and extremely poor yam farm households respectively. The head count ratio indicates that 53% of the households were poor while 14% of the households were extremely poor in Southeastern Nigeria. The poverty depth of the extremely poor yam households was 42% while that of the poor yam households was 22%. The Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) index for the poor and extremely poor yam households was 11 and 77% respectively. The food demand behaviour for both poor and extremely poor yam farm households was estimated using the linearly approximated almost ideal demand system (LA/AIDS). The results show that food demand was significantly determined mostly by prices and income than by socio-demographic variables for both the poor and extremely poor yam farm households, however, the food demands of poor yam farm households were more responsive to income and prices than are those of extremely poor yam households in Southeastern Nigeria.

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Title:           Efficiency of Fish Production: An Application of Stochastic Production Function in Oyo Agricultural Zone, Oyo State. Nigeria.

Author(s):   Oluwafemi, Z. O., Adenegan, K. O. and Oluwafemi T. B.

Abstract:  This paper examined the resource use efficiency of fish production in Oyo State agricultural zone. Structured questionnaires and in-depth interview were used for data collection. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to sample 120 fish farmers but 100 respondents were used in the final stage. Descriptive analysis, Gross Margin Analysis (GM) as well as inferential statistics (stochastic production function) were employed in the analysis of inefficient level of farmers. The result of the analysis shows that the gross margin of the average fish farmers was estimated at N 204279.72. The stochastic frontier production function analysis showed that coefficient labour (0.1897), numbers of fingerlings (1.0160) and production period (-0.6663) were statistically significant at 5%, 1% and 5% respectively. Majority of the farmers, which is about 77% have their efficiencies between 0.5 and 0.9 while the mean efficiency of the fish farmers in the study area was 0.67.  In conclusion, the fish production on the average is relatively efficient.

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Title:           Economic Analysis of Yam Marketing in Ogbaru Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria.

Author(s):   Nwibo, S. U.

Abstract:  The study analysed the economics of yam marketing in Ogbaru L. G. A. of Anambra State, Nigeria.  Specifically, the study seek to; describe the socio-economic characteristics of the yam marketers in the area; determine the costs and returns of yam marketing in the area; determine the demand and supply elasticity of yam marketing in the area; analyse the constraints to yam marketing in the area.  A multistage random sampling technique was employed in the selection of 120 yam marketers.  Data for the study were collected using primary source and were analysed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. It was observed that the marketers were within the mean age of 41 years and were mostly women who had a mean household size of 8 persons. The result equally revealed that the marketers had an average annual income of N180, 000.00 and a gross profit of N159, 300.00 which implied that for every N1 invested in the marketing of yam in the area, N0.21k was realized as profit. The demand and supply of yam in Ogbaru L.G.A. was observed to be unitary and elastic respectively.  The study however, identified high cost of transportation, distance of products from market, lack of daily market, high degree of perishability of yam, poor road network, lack of credit, distance to and lack of storage facility as the major constraints to yam marketing in Ogbaru L. G. A. of Anambra State.  Effective and efficient transportation system should be developed to address the high cost of yam haulage and delivery. Post harvest technological packages should also be developed and extend to yam farmers as it will address issues of yam perishability and ensures that yam are sold in more convenient forms.

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Title:           Determinants of Credit Demand and Net Farm Income among Broiler Producers in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria

Author(s):   Ugwumba, C. O. A. and Okwuanaso, K. O.

Abstract:  This study examined socio-economic, profitability, determinants and constraints to credit demand and production of broiler in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. It utilized data obtained through the administration of pre-tested questionnaires to 50 respondents selected by purposive, multistage and random sampling methods. Non-inferential statistical tools (means, frequency counts, percentages, ratios and mean scores) and inferential statistics (probit and ordinary least squares regressions) were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that majority of the respondent (52%) are literate youth of age 50years and below who depend on personal savings to finance production activities, dominated the enterprise. The enterprise proved profitable by yielding mean net farm income of N421, 747.30 and returning 89kobo for every 100kobo investment. Credit demand was statistically and significantly influenced by educational level, stock size, cost of inputs, years of experience and net farm income. Net farm income was significantly determined by age, educational level, cost of inputs and farm size. Credit demand and net farm income were most seriously constrained by delays in disbursement and high cost of feeds respectively. More credits will be demanded by the formulation of policies to reduce delays in disbursement, introduce concessionary interest rates, and adopt joint liability repayment strategies. Again, broadening of extension services to encourage formulation of private feeds and hence reduce cost of production will enhance productivity, profitability and ensure enterprise sustainability.

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Title:           Agronomic Performances of Corchorus olitorus  as Influenced by Poultry Manure and NPK 15-15-15 Fertilizer in Ikorodu, Nigeria

Author(s):   Sanni,K. O.and Adesina, J. M.

Abstract:  The maintenance of organic matter content of soil through the use of fertilizer is of primary importance to any soil management programme under continuous cropping. In light of this, a Radomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) experiment with three treatments and three replications was conducted at the Teaching and Commercial Farms of Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria to evaluate the agronomic and yield performances of Corchorus olitorus to organic and inorganic fertilizers. The result showed significant (P<0.05) effects of PM and NPK fertilizer on all the parameters measured. PM and fertilizer had significant (P<0.05) on plant height with the tallest plant recorded in plots applied to PM at 3 (18.80cm) and 5 (49.26cm) weeks after planting (WAP). Similarly, PM had significant (P<0.05) effect on leaf number and stem girth development. Lowest yield (4.46kg) was obtained from control plot and highest yield was obtained from plots treated with PM (6.35kg) followed by NPK (6.10kg) which was not significantly different compared to PM. Therefore, it was concluded that Ikorodu farmers could apply 25 t ha-1 PM to obtain maximum C. olitorus growth and yield. This will save the farmers the shortcomings encountered with the use of inorganic fertilizer and offer a veritable means of disposing PM waste in urban cities.

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Title:           Performance of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) in Mixture with Maize (Zea mays) as influenced by Cultivar, stands Density and Row Arrangement

Author(s):   Attah, E. S., Kalu, B. A. and Ayuba, S. A.


Abstract:  This study evaluated one local (cv. Ileje) and two improved cowpea cultivars (cvs. L.25 and IAR-48) for grain yield, and to determine optimum cowpea population density (40,000, 66,666 or 80,000 plants/ha) as well as appropriate row arrangement (1:1 maize-cowpea intra-row or 1:1 maize-cowpea inter-row) for intercropping these cultivars with maize. Treatments were randomly arranged in split-split plots with three replications. There were significant cultivar differences (P<0.05) for grain yield with ‘Ileje’ having the highest value and IAR-48 the least. The effect of plant density was not significant for grain yield and most of the components determining yield. ‘Ileje’ and L-25 produced higher (P<0.05) grain yields in 1:1 inter-row than in 1:1 intra-row arrangement, but IAR-48 was not different at both levels of row arrangement.

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Title:           Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract on the Growth and Yield of Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merri) and Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annum L.)

Author(s):   Madukwe, D. K., Onuh, M. O. and Christo, I. E.

Abstract:  This study was conducted as pot experiment in the late cropping season in 2011 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State University, Owerri, to ascertain the potential effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the performance of soybean and pepper. The experiment consisting of 48 plastic buckets of 30cm3 capacity, perforated at the base was divided into two groups arranged in a Completely Randomized Design. One group of 24 plastic buckets was used for planting the soybean, while the other groups of buckets were used for planting pepper. The buckets were filled two third with top soil and soil samples were collected from each plastic bucket for analysis. The treatments were applied at 4 weeks after planting at the following rate 20mls of Moringa leaf extract, 40mls of Moringa leaf extract, 60mls Moringa leaf extract with 60mls of ethanol, no Moringa leaf extract and 2.84g of NPK fertilizer serving as control. Data were collected from the two crops on the following parameters; plant height, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, leaf area per plant and seed yield (kg/ha). The soil was again analysed after harvesting of seeds. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance procedure (P≤0.05). Results from the soil analysed after harvest showed that Moringa leaf extract at the rate 60ml/plot gave the highest pH (6.8) value which was significantly different (P<0.05) from the value 5.2 recorded from plots treated with 2.84g NPK fertilizer. The pH of the untreated plots and plots treated with 60ml of ethanol were the same as that of the initial property of the soil. The nutrient elements were observed to be reduced in treated plots when compared to the initial properties of the soil. Results also showed that Moringa leaf extract did not improve either growth of soybean or pepper, rather NPK at 2.84g application rate gave the highest (383.2cm2 and 19.8cm2) mean leaf area for soybean and pepper respectively. The same NPK rate gave the highest plant height of 42.5cm and 25.8cm for soybean and pepper, respectively. Seed yield was highest (1689.6kgha-1) in soybean plants that received 2.84g of NPK. It was concluded that Moringa leaf extract, at the rate applied is not capable of a enhancing the growth and yield of soybean and pepper.

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Title:           Relationship between Canopy Width, Tree Height, Trunk Size and Slenderness Coefficient of Four Tree Species Growing in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Author(s):   Onilude, Q. A., Julius, A. J., Olaiwola, B. I., Showunmi, I. L. and Ogunremi, O. C.

Abstract:  In this study, the relationship between Canopy width, tree height, trunk size and Slenderness coefficient of four tree species growing in Ibadan, a town located in Rainforest Zone of Southern Nigeria were investigated. The study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of these tree species to wind throw and also if they can be useful for afforestation programmes. The tree species were Antiaris africana, Triplochiton scleroxylon, Gmelina arborea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Twenty - five trees of each species ensured to be free from obvious ecological disturbances were selected for the study. The results of regression analysis conducted indicated a linear relationship between tree variables measured. However, correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between slenderness coefficient and the tree heights while negative correlation with tree DBH for all the tree species. Also, the correlation coefficient between tree SLC and tree height was higher than correlation coefficient between SLC values and other tree attributes indicating that tree height is a better predictor of SLC for the studied tree species. Furthermore, the mean slenderness coefficient for the different tree species are as follows: Eucalyptus camaldulensis 46.7, Triplochiton scleroxylon 75.0, Gmelina arborea 76.9 and Antiaris africana 63.1 with a low slenderness coefficient values indicating a high resistance to wind throw or wind damage (good stand stability), and trees with high slenderness coefficient indicates a low resistance to wind damage or throw while moderate slenderness coefficient indicates that the trees can be partially affected though little resistance can be noticed. Therefore all the four tree species are not much more susceptible to wind throw, have the ability to withstand and can be suitable for afforestation, re-afforestation, or establishment of shelter belts to arrest desert encroachment and even erosion.

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Title:           Agronomic Performance of Plantain (Musa paradisci Aab) and Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) as Influenced by Intercrop and NPK Fertilizer Application

 Author(s):   Madukwe, D. K., Okorie H. A. and Christo I. E.

 Abstract:  This experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri to evaluate the yield and agronomy performance of plantain intercropped with Mungbean as influenced by NPK fertilizer application. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in a split plot fashion with the cropping pattern (Plantain and mungbean intercrop, plantain sole and Mungbean sole) representing the main plot while the NPK and unfertilized plot constitute the subplots. The experiment was replicated four times. The plantains were planted at the spacing of 3m x 3m while Mungbean seeds were sown at 25cm x 26cm. Only one level of fertilizer was applied in split doses for plantain at 60 DAP, 90 DAP, and 120 DAP at the rate of 44.44kg/ha, 33.33kg/ha and 33.33kg/ha/plant, respectively while the mungbean received 0.002 kg/plant. Data were collected on germination percentage of mungbean, Mungbean plant height, mungbean stem girth, number of leaves per mungbean plants, leaf area of mungbean, days to 5% flowering and maturity, mungbean seed weight and seed yield for mungbean; plantain height, plant girth, number of functional leaves, leaf area, number of fingers, Bunch weight and yield for plantain. Results showed that NPK application significantly influenced the performance of mungbean as well especially in the intercrop in terms of plant height (30.83cm), stem girth (60.70cm) and number of leaves (7.58) and seed weight (10.38). NPK also had significantly influence in the intercrop while in terms of yield (1,660.00kg/ha) mungbean was significantly influenced in the intercrop plots. For plantain the NPK in sole crop had significant influence on plantain in terms of plant height (82.75cm), stem girth (30.68cm) while in terms of number of functional leaves, leaf area, yield and yield component of plantain, there was no significant influence. It was concluded that NPK fertilizer and intercropping significantly influence the growth and yield of mungbean than that of plantain and recommended that a different legume crop and varying rates of NPK be used in another trial.

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Title:           Impact of Irrigation Methods and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Yield of three Cotton (Gossypium hirsitumL.) Varieties

Author(s):   Kura, H. N., Abubakar, I. U., Tanimu, B. and Mahmud, M.

Abstract:   Field trials were conducted during the dry seasons of 2007, 2008 and 2009 at the Irrigation Research Station, Institute for Agricultural Research, Kadawa to study the response of the cotton varieties to irrigation methods and nitrogen application. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of three irrigation methods (check-basin, border strip and furrow), four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (40, 70, 100 and 130 kg ha-1), using three cotton varieties (SAMCOT-10, SAMCOT-11 and SAMCOT-13) laid out in a split plot design replicated three times.  Nitrogen and irrigation methods were factorially combined and assigned to the main plot while cotton varieties were assigned to the sub-plots. Agronomic practices where done to ensure good crop growth. In the three years trial the performance of the varieties was generally better in 2008 than the other years due to better weather and nutrient status of the area. The study showed that among the varieties tested, SAMCOT-13 exhibited superior growth and yield performance in most of the parameters measured than the other two varieties.  SAMCOT-13 had significantly higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, higher seed cotton yield than other varieties.  However, irrigation methods did not show significant difference in seed cotton yield. Border strip significantly resulted in taller plant and earlier flowering. Increasing nitrogen rates significantly increased growth parameters like plant height, leaf area index and CGR but significantly delayed 50% flowering.  The seed cotton yield was significantly increased with application of 70 kg N ha-1 but further increase resulted in significantly lower value. Therefore based on the  results obtained  the use of SAMCOT-13 and 70 kg N ha-1 using border strip irrigation method will be better adopted for maximum seed cotton yield during dry season.

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Pest Management


Title:           Determination of the effect of Zingiber officianale and Allium sativum powders on the mortality of Dermestid maculatus larvae on treated dried Clarias gariepinus fish

Author(s):   Abdullahi, N., Ubayi S. M. and Babura S. R.


Abstract:   This study was conducted at the Biological Science Department, Bayero University Kano under ambient condition of temperature and relative humidity (280C and 72%) in order to investigate the efficacy of some selected spices (Z. officianale and A. sativum) against the larvae of D. maculates. The spices were brought in dried form from Sabon Gari market in Kano State and brought to the Biological Science laboratory. Adult of D.maculatus was collected from infested dried fish in Sabon Gari market and was identified morphologically using taxonomic key. Identified adult were introduced into large plastic container containing dried uninfested C. gariepinus fish and the container was covered with muslin cloth. The insect were left for weeks to allow time for oviposition on the substrate and hatching of larvae from the eggs. The newly hatched larvae from the eggs were collected on daily basis and were used for the experiment. C. gariepinus fish were brought from Sabon Gari Market and was transported in container and kept at the Biological Science Department, Bayero University Kano. Dried Z.officianale and A.sativum (ginger and garlic) were pulverized separately into fine powders using pestle and mortar and was then sieved using 2mm mesh size to obtain fine powder particle. 20g of the fish was separately weight into small plastic containers and different amount (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0g) of Z.officianale and A.sativum powders which correspond to 2.5, 5.0,7.5 and 10.0%w/w respectively were separately and manually rubbed to the C. gariepinus fish.  5 larvae of D.maculatus of 24 hours old were sieved from the culture and separately introduced into these separate containers. Control treatment was set along and each treatment was replicated three times. All the treatment in the plastic containers was then covered with muslin cloth to permit aeration. Z.officianale and A.sativum powders were found to be effective against larval stages of D.maculatus in this study. The result indicated that the higher treatment level (2.0g) of both Z.officianale and A.sativum powders were the most effective in all the application level used which recorded 100%mortality of the larvae within the shortest duration of treatment (144hour) and this was found to be the lowest duration when compared with other treatment levels (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5g) which recorded 100%mortality of the larvae only after 192hours of treatment. Z.officianale and A.sativum powders can be effective for the protection of C. gariepinus fish infestation against larvae of D.maculatus.

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Title:           Evaluation of New Herbicides for Weed Control in Yam Production at Umudike, South-East Nigeria, West Africa

Author(s):  Korieocha, D. S., Korieocha, J. N., Ogbonna, M. C., Nwokocha, C. C., Bassey, E. E. and Njoku, S. C.

Abstract:   Field studies were conducted at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, South-Eastern, Nigeria in 2010 and 2009 cropping seasons, to determine the effect of new herbicides on weeds in yam and the economic implications of chemical weed control in yam using herbicides. The experiment was set up as a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replicates. Data on weed types and density were collected using two 1m x 1m quadrants. Yields were collected by 50 kg weighing balance. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using the GLM Procedure of SAS and significant differences among means were tested using FLSD at 5% level of probability. The result obtained over the two years showed that application of Diutop gold at rate 3 L/ha controlled broad leave weeds, Sedges and grasses effectively and had lowest weed density when compared with the other herbicides application and hand weeding. It also gave the highest yield and monetary gain when compares with manual weeding. This chemical can be complimented with the manual weeding operation to achieve greater returns.

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Title:           Stigmatization of People Living With HIV/AIDS in Rural Communities of Oyo State, Nigeria

Author(s):   Akinbile, L. A. and Olagoke, O. O.


Abstract:   This study assessed the effects of stigmatization on people living with HIV/AIDS in rural communities of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedules from a total of 115 respondents. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical tools, inferential analyses of Pearson Moment Correlation and Chi-square Tests. The result shows that 64.3% were females while 33.7% were males indicating that females are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS and are often victims of stigmatization. Also, 48.7% of respondents were farmers, while the rests were artisans, traders, students and unemployed. The mean age of respondents was 37.0±1.2. Their level of education was mostly secondary education (53.0%) and 48.7% were house wives. There existed a significant relationship between sex of respondents and the effect of stigmatization on them (c2 =10.65; p=0.01). Also, level of education of respondents had a significant relationship with the effect of stigmatization on them (c2 =69.478 =0.00). Household size of respondents had a significant relationship with the effect of stigmatization on them (c2 =42.957; p=0.00). The age of the respondents also had a significant relationship with the effect of stigmatization on them. The aim of the government and non-governmental organization is to achieve an HIV/AIDS free society, efforts should be geared and concentrated on eradicating all forms of stigmatization suffered by people living with HIV/AIDS so as to give them freedom to declare their HIV/AIDS status publicly which in no measure will reduce the rate at which the disease spreads.

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Title:           The Speed of Share Price Reaction to Corporate Announcements in Nigeria: The Case of Final Dividend Announcements

Author(s):  Osuala, A. E., Odunze, C. O. and Nwansi, G. U.

Abstract:   The process by which security prices adjust to the release of new information is an area of study which has received much attention in accounting and finance. Speed of price adjustment is another dimension of market efficiency besides direction and magnitude. However, the speed dimension has always been receiving less attention even in the developed markets. A number of estimators have been developed quite recently to measure speed of share price adjustment. However, each of these estimators suffers from deficiencies such as non-synchronous trading, partial adjustment only and limiting point of time to fully adjust. This study addresses this problem by employing the event study methodology which has been shown to be quite robust. It uses the final dividend announcements of companies listed in the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) for a period of 4 years. The study reveals that there is price reaction to new information in the Nigerian emerging stock market. The speed of price adjustment is quite slow when compared to the developed markets. Besides, there is leakage of information in this market some 20 days before the event day.

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Title:           Effect of Rural Development Projects on the Poverty Status of the Beneficiaries in Abia State, Nigeria: A Case Study of Community-Based Poverty Reduction Project.

 Author(s):  Nwaekpe, J. O., Ekumankama, O. O. and Okoye, B. C.


Abstract:   The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of rural development (water and health) project on the poverty status of the beneficiaries in Abia state, Nigeria. The study used primary and secondary data. In all, 200 respondents from 20 benefiting communities were sampled using multistage sampling procedure. Data were analyzed using Tobit regression and a five point type likert scale. Reduction in expenditure on health care, medications and drugs, obtained better and quick health care attention which positively affected the poverty status of the beneficiaries of ABCPRP health facilities in Abia State. Only, employment to respondents’ household/community affected the poverty status of the beneficiaries of ABCPRP water facilities in Abia State and it had positive relationship with poverty. The study recommended among other things, that correct appraisal should be carried out to ensure that the project selected is one that will satisfy the felt need of majority of the community members and that no section of the community is excluded; Efforts need to be made by government and communities with respect to water project to ensure that the failed pumping machines and rusty pipes are repaired and replaced with genuine spare parts so that such water projects can be functional; Poverty Alleviation Programmes and rural development projects generally should be planned in a way that it will reduce expenditure and increase income in rural areas.

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Title:           Design and Development of a Combined Cassava mash Pulverizer/Sifter

 Author(s):  Ikejiofor, M. C.

 Abstract:   The need to reduce drudgery in pulverizing and sifting operations involved in gari / high quality cassava flour making is the major consideration for the design and development of simple, efficient and affordable cassava mash pulverizer / sifter in Engineering Research Workshop of National Root Crops Research Institute, NRCRI Umudike. The overall dimension of the developed machine is 82cm x 67cm x 142cm. Test results showed that the machine has a highest output capacity of 167.52kg / hr at mash moisture content of 40% and machine operating speed of 520rpm, with the sifting efficiency of 91.3%. The efficiency of the machine increases as the moisture of the dewatered mash reduces. The machine was observed to perform effectively and therefore recommended for the medium / large scale cassava processing.

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  Title:           Nutritional and Microbiological Components of Honey Samples obtained from Ogun State, South-West Nigeria.

 Author(s):  Adenekan, M. O., Ogundipe, W. F., Awogbade, A. L., Salako, R. A.and Owolade, E. O.


Abstract:   There are no detailed studies on the nutritional and microbiological characteristics of honey produced in Ogun State in the Southwestern part of Nigeria. This paper investigated these components in honeys produced from different parts of the State. A total of 10 honey samples per year were collected for the years 2008 – 2010. These were separately analyzed for their physical properties, nutritional and microbiological components in the laboratory. The results of the physical properties showed that honey samples obtained from Ago-Iwoye has the lowest pH of 3.48, which was significantly different from the pH values of 5.06, 5.21 and 4.06 obtained from honey samples from Abeokuta, Ibefun and Ilisan honey samples respectively. There was significant difference in moisture contents of honey samples obtained from Ogere (16.19 %), Otta (19.14 %) and Ijebu-Ode (18.21 %), while the percentage ash contents of 0.78 % obtained from honey samples collected from Abeokuta was not significantly different from the value of 0.75 % obtained from Ago-Iwoye honey (P ≤ 0.05). However, the value of 1.11 mg 100 g-1 for hydroxymethylfurfural obtained from Ago-Iwoye honey samples was not significantly different from the value of 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in honey samples obtained from Sagamu.The value for glucose ranged from 18.42 – 30.16 g 100 g-1, while fructose sugar varied between 25.42 – 38.21 g 100 g-1. Minimum protein value of 0.02 % was obtained from Ijebu-Ode honey, while the maximum of 0.51 % was obtained from honey samples from Ilisan. Results of the elemental nutrient showed that potassium was the most abundant element in honey samples with the range value of 14.78 – 17.42 mg 100 g-1 followed by calcium, which varied from 2.13 – 11.25 mg 100 g-1. However, result of microbiological properties showed that the total plate count varied from 0.2 – 3.4 x 103cfu g-1, whereas total coliforms were not detected in honey samples collected from Ago-Iwoye, Otta, Ibefun, Ifo and Sagamu. Clostridium spp, Bacillus spp and yeast were also detected at low count in all honey samples investigated.Moreover, honey samples obtained from different parts of Ogun State were found to be contaminated with Pseudomonas spp., Xanthomonas spp., Bacillus spp., E. coli and Clostridium spp, while fungi spores intercepted were Pennicillium oxalicum, Aspergilus niger, A. Flavus and Fusarium oxysporum at different levels and counts.

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